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Present Day

Model average Rainfall mm/month


Shown above is the simulated mean annual rainfall (mm per month) for the 1981-2010 period using all four CRESCENDO models. This period is often referred to as the ‘present-day’ by climate researcher. The model has been set up with actual historically-observed amounts of greenhouse gases and other atmospheric pollutants. 


Model average Rainfall change mm/month


These are simulated average annual rainfall changes (mm per month) for the future period of 2071-2100 under the SSP2-4.5  scenario of greenhouse gas emissions. This scenario is a ‘middle-of-the-road’ imagination of the future – it represents a world where some reduction of greenhouse gases occurs (but not as much as the Paris Agreement requirements).

Statistics for: London

Annual rainfall values for now and the future, simulated by the model, for are shown below.

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Annual average 1981-2010:     mm/month

Change by 2071-2100:     mm/month

Annual rainfall by 2071-2100:     mm/month


Today globe


Future globe


City statistics